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张金平:法国总统新年致辞中的反恐怖信息

  • 来源:反恐研究院
  • 发布者:反恐法学院
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张金平:法国总统新年致辞中的反恐怖信息

张金平,教授,博士,现为西北政法大学反恐怖主义研究院院长。先后出版个人专著《中东恐怖主义的历史演变》、《国际恐怖主义与反恐策略》2部,学术论文60余篇,其中有数篇被人大复印资料《国际政治》、《中国外交》转载。主持、参与国家社科基金项目《国际恐怖主义与反恐策略》、《社会结构的内外张力与阿拉伯之春的发生演变研究》等多个科研项目。主要研究领域为国际恐怖主义与反恐怖策略;中东社会与政治。


2020年12月31日辞旧迎新之际,法国总统在新年致辞中透露出了其对恐怖威胁、反恐怖重点工作等信息。

一、致辞中对恐怖威胁的认识

法国总统认为法国面临国内多层面的恐怖威胁。

第一,国内的恐怖威胁非常突出。总统新年致辞中提到了巴黎、尼斯恐怖袭击,尽管致辞中是以“战胜”的角度来表述的,“在尼斯警察的帮助下,对巴黎圣母院圣母堂的袭击得以结束”,但现实的恐怖袭击威胁依旧让法国总统感到凝重,法国2020年10月巴黎发生的恐怖袭击中恐怖分子采取了“斩首”极端形式。

第二,国内存在严峻的极端化现象。总统提到“就像成千上万的教师一样,在萨缪尔·帕蒂被暗杀几天后,他不得不组织一门关于世俗主义的课程…带着勇气,他向学生们讲述了我们的价值观和他们的历史”,巴黎袭击案就反映了家长等社会面存在的极端化现象。

第三,国际反恐怖压力依然存在。新年致辞中提到法国在马的反恐怖工作,“他们都是上周一在马里行动中牺牲的士兵,他们都是这个国家的英雄”。法国长期参与马里反恐怖行动、包括武力打击行动,也面临针对法国士兵的暴恐袭击,马里长期存在严重的恐怖活动,尼日利亚、布基纳法索等西非地区的恐怖活动呈现扩散趋势。西非恐怖活动与北非恐怖活动联系密切,北非的恐怖分子常常直接到法国境内实施袭击,2020年10月29日在法国尼斯教堂实施袭击的恐怖分子就来自突尼斯。

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二、致辞中强调去极端化工作

在致辞中,总统强调“落实《公民公约》建议和其他改革措施。为共和国和我们的价值观、世俗主义、博爱和更多的安全而战。”这体现了法国对去极端化工作的高度重视。

第一,强调法国的核心价值观作为去极端化的思想基础。除了“世俗主义、博爱”等价值观外,还特别突出“共和国”理念也就是国家认同。

第二,法国将重视去极端化的法律保障。致辞中提到“落实《公民公约》建议”,事实上,2020年11月中旬法国总统就要求法国穆斯林信仰委员会(CFCM)领导人起草并接受《共和国价值观宪章》,宪章的核心原则是:其一,伊斯兰教是宗教而非政治运动;其二,外来势力不能干预法国穆斯林的宗教活动、社会规范等。

第三,去极端化工作关系到国家安全。致辞中说去极端化工作是为“更多的安全而战”,体现了去极端化工作的战略地位。


三、法国去极端化存在严重的偏狭

自2020年10月以来,法国出台了一系列强化去极端化的举措,在新年致辞中也突出以国家认同为核心的去极端化思路,但法国长期以来直到当前的去极端化策略仍存在严重的偏狭,将严重制约其反恐怖去极端化工作。

第一,国内去极端化工作的偏狭。当前,法国将学校、宗教场所、监狱等作为去极端化工作的重点,但社会领域的去极端化远远不够,如有些学生家长的极端化、有些车臣移民的极端化,都诱发过恐怖袭击,但法国去极端化工作却难以有效地涵盖这些群体。在思想领域,法国虽然强调国家认同、但还没有认识到多元主义解构主义与当前社会极端化之间的联系。

第二,地区事务中去极端化的偏狭。法国在2011年牵头对利比亚进行武装干预、颠覆利比亚卡扎菲政权,此后又干预叙利亚事务。法国的这些干预,既助长西亚北非地区极端势力的膨胀,也诱发了法国本土极端势力的扩展,而法国与西亚北非地区的极端主义活动又相互影响,包括极端分子、恐怖分子的跨境活动。

第三,全球去极端化工作中的偏狭。典型的就是双重标准,对中国等发展中国家的去极端化有效的做法不但不予借鉴,反而出于政治偏见缘故对中国等国家的去极端化工作进行抹黑。

吃一堑长一智,经历了2020年10月的连环恐怖袭击后,法国在2021年理应在去极端化领域更好地消除偏狭、更加全面地推进去极端化工作,方能达到“更多安全”的去极端化目标。

小编:再次感谢张金平教授为本公众号送来2021年新年礼物,此文献是张教授通过马克龙新年致辞对于法国近期反恐局势高瞻远瞩的判断,值得大家好好学习,传阅和思考。

附马克龙新年致辞英文版

WISHES 2021 TO?THE?FRENCH.

JANUARY 1,2021-

My dear compatriots in France, overseas and abroad,

Tonight, we are not living a December 31st like the others.

?Where in our towns and villages it is usually time for large gatherings, they are thisyears prohibited by the epidemic: the squares of our towns are extinct, our homes less joyful than?the usual.
The year 2020 therefore ends as it unfolded: with efforts and restrictions. And I have?fully aware, by the decisions that I had to make, of the sacrifices that I made to you?requested.
?I sincerely believe that we made the right choices at the right times and I want you?thank you for your good citizenship. From this spirit of collective responsibility by which we have saved so many?lives and which allows us today to cope better than many in the face of the epidemic.
On your behalf, I have a thought this evening for the 64,000 victims of this virus, their families and?relatives. Parents, friends, whole sections of the French imagination have left us these?month.
Yes, this year 2020 has been difficult. She reminded us of our vulnerabilities. She was even more unfair?for the most fragile. But together we come out even more united, and having learned a lot.
I also have a thought for all our compatriots living in precariousness, sometimes poverty, for whom?the crisis we are going through makes everyday life even more difficult.
?I want to say our gratitude to those who mobilized to care for, feed, educate, protect,?to all those who, through their work, their commitment, have enabled us to stand up and together during?those difficult months. And who this evening again, do it for the Nation.To our fellow citizens working in the sectors of culture, sport, catering, hotels,tourism, or events, to students who have suffered and are suffering even more than?others, I want to tell them again that we will be there.
Obviously to succeed in getting out of this situation as quickly as possible.?And to allow them to hold out in this period so hard and unfair for them where we ask them?to work differently, and sometimes even to give up their activity.
This historic test also revealed the solidity of our Nation.
Despite the pandemic, we have never given up pursuing our ambition for progress for everyone?by lowering taxes, opening up new rights such as leave for caregivers,?paternity leave, by supporting, through bonuses, the conversion of our vehicle fleet, by opening?throughout the territory of the France services houses, by investing in our sovereignty and our?historical research, by acting to produce more in France and in Europe.
?Our caregivers not only held on but we initiated a profound transformation and?historic investments in our health, the relevance of which the coming years will reveal.?Our country is one of those which intervened the most to protect and support young people,?workers, contractors. This "whatever the cost", I assume because it has helped to preserve?lives and protect jobs. We will have to build together the answers that will not??make it a burden on future generations.
?This evening for the first time a country, the United Kingdom, will leave the European Union. We sealed it??a few days ago an agreement to organize our future relations with him by defending our interests,?our manufacturers, our fishermen and our European unity. The UK remains our neighbor but?also our friend and our ally. This choice to leave Europe, this Brexit, was the child of the European malaise?and a lot of lies and false promises. But I want to tell you very clearly:?our destiny is first in Europe.
Our sovereignty is national and I will do everything so that we regain control of our destiny?and our lives. But this sovereignty also requires a stronger, more autonomous, more united Europe.
?This is what we built in 2020.
?Because we have been able to carry out the necessary transformations and strengthen our credibility, we?were able to convince Germany and then the other members of the European Union to design a plan?single and massive recovery and to decide on a common and solidarity debt to better prepare?our future by committing to the ecological and digital transition and by creating as many?jobs as we can for our youth.?Yes, this year 2020 is not just about the epidemic even if it has changed our lives.?In my eyes, it also revealed exemplary routes which are so many compasses for the times to?come.
Our greatest pride in fact are the French. You.?Marie-Corentine is 24 years old. Last spring, this newly graduated nurse from?Limoges did not hesitate to leave everything to lend a hand to the teams at Créteil hospital?overwhelmed by the influx of patients with the virus.?
?Jean-Luc is a driver and garbage collector in Guyana. With his colleagues Anthony and Maxime, they never?stopped working since the start of the pandemic. At the height of the confinement, they constituted this "second line ”which allowed the country to continue to live, and life to continue.
Gérald is an entrepreneur near Angers. To meet the demand for masks, he, with his employees,?achieved the feat of opening its factories 7 days a week, 24 hours a day and, more recently, of installing them?another in record time.
?Lucas is 11 years old and lives in Béthune. When he discovered the situation of isolation of the elderly?with COVID-19 in his city hospital, he did not hesitate for a second and donated his?tablet to allow them to communicate with their loved ones and find a smile. It was followed?by many others.
Rosalie is a bookseller in Bagnolet in Seine-Saint Denis. Like all her colleagues, she has a lot?suffered from the closure of shops, despite the aid, it was able to innovate. Set up a site?internet to allow take-out during the toughest weeks. And the customers, at Christmas, have?answered present.
Romain is a gendarme in Tende, in the Alpes-Maritimes. The night of October 2 to 3, floods?threaten to take away a retirement home. At the risk of his life, he manages to evacuate more than 70?residents, saving their lives. With the Nice police, who put an end to the attack on the Basilica of Notre-Dame
Lady of the Assumption, with Arno, Cyrille and Rémi, gendarmes killed while rescuing a?woman beaten in the Puy de D?me, with Tanerii, Dorian and Quentin, soldiers who died last Monday in?operation in Mali, they are heroes of the Nation.
Medhi is a professor of economic and social sciences in the northern districts of Marseille.?
As?thousands of teachers, a few days after Samuel PATY's assassination, he had to organize a?course on secularism. For this, he took the time to train with other teachers and?academy inspectors. With courage, he returned to his students on our values, their?history. Assuming this high mission of our school, of our teachers: to make republicans.
?Wendie is a footballer. Like all amateur and professional athletes, she has lived through a season?difficult with impossible training, staggered competitions, matches without an audience.
?However, she drew from her the strength of soul to go and win a 7th League with her club.?champions, a record, and to make us dream in this gray period.
Mauricette is 78 years old. She lives in a retirement home in Sevran and a few days ago you?have all seen it, like me, she was the first French woman to be vaccinated against COVID 19, sending,?against obscurantism and conspiracy, a magnificent message of hope for the coming year.
All these first names, these faces are those of your sister, your neighbor, your friends, these thousands?anonymous who, committed and united, have held our country to the test.
All these first names, these faces are those of hope. Those of France.
My dear compatriots,
Our Nation has gone through this year with such unity and resilience: nothing can resist it.
Our Nation has been capable, in these difficult times, of so much innovation, inventiveness, generosity:?everything is possible for him.
?In 2021, whatever happens, we will therefore be able to cope with crises - health, economic and social,?terrorist, climatic - which will not be extinguished with January 1. The first months of the year will be?difficult and, at least until spring, the epidemic will still weigh heavily on the life of our country.
?In 2021, whatever happens, because we have prepared for it, we will also be able to meet the challenges?to come up :
- ecological transition and protection of biodiversity, with the implementation of proposals for?the citizens' convention, and other reforms.
- the fight for the Republic and for our values, secularism, fraternity, for more security.
- the?continuation of our commitment to merit, work, equal opportunities and the fight against all?inequalities and discrimination.
?The trials we have faced could have dulled our enthusiasm, quenched our hope.?It is not.
Hope is there in this vaccine that human genius made happen in just one year. It was unthinkable?a few months ago. And I tell you with great determination this evening: I will not let?nobody playing with safety and the right conditions, supervised by our scientists and our?doctors, in which the vaccination must be done. I will not leave more, for doctors, in which the vaccination must be done. I will not leave more, for?wrong reasons, unwarranted slowness to set in: every Frenchman who wishes it must be able to?get vaccinated. Safely and in the correct order, starting with those with the most?risks.?Hope is there, and hope grows every day in this relaunch which is already shuddering in France more?that elsewhere and which will allow us, from the spring, to invent a stronger economy, all at the same time?job creator, more innovative, more respectful of the climate and biodiversity and more united. And
I know the Prime Minister and the government are fully mobilized.
Hope lives in the freedom that we will find again, in the strength of our culture, of our art of living in?the French, also in the lessons that we will be able to draw from this crisis for the sake of simplicity,?efficiency, and sometimes quite simply, common sense.
Hope lives on in our youth. We asked him so much: sacrifices, to renounce
meetings which are at this age more than at others the salt of life. We asked him so much for?save lives especially those of the most fragile of our elders. So we are his debtors?for our future choices and I commit to it: it is for our youth that we must continue to act, to?transform, to move forward. We will not add to the cost of the crisis the cost of inaction.
By fighting against the virus, by fighting against its economic and social consequences, by?re-founding a stronger, fraternal and sustainable society, it is the France of 2030 that we will build. Phone?is our course.
So together, in harmony, let's look ahead, look at our future, prepare?today this spring 2021 which will be the beginning of a new French morning, of a renaissance?European.
Let us remain this people united, united, proud of its history, its values, its culture, confident in the future?and progress, sure of his talent and his energy and ambitious in himself. Whatever happens.
Let us be proud. Proud to be "us", the French, France.
These are my dear compatriots.


Happy New Year everyone.

May 2021 be a happy year for everyone and a useful year for our country.

Long live the Republic.

Long live France.

来源:叙利亚暨阿富汗战争数据库微信公众号